Skip to main content

HISTORY INSIDE PICTURES

Look in The Electric Mirror to Find the Ark of the Covenant
HISTORY INSIDE PICTURES
ABOUT 666
ABOUT REAL STAR WARS
666 EXPLAINS NUMBER 153
A SPIRIT REINCARNATED
AIRPLANE & UFO PICTURES
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE
ANCIENT ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY
ANCIENT INVENTIONS
ARC LAMPS IN SEARCHLIGHTS
CONSOLIDATION COAL CO.
COVENANT ARK OR ARC
FAIRMONT WV COAL
GODS BIBLE CHRIST ETC
HUMOROUS OBAMA NEWS
KALEIDOSCOPE PROJECTOR
LIGHTHOUSE HISTORY
Ancient Lighthouse Coins
Lighthouse Helgoland
Navesink Lighthouse Light
Old British Lighthouses
Pharos by Al Bakri
The Pharos Electric Light
US Lighthouse History
LIGHT LOOMING REPORTS
LUCKY CURE FOR OBESITY
MAGIC LANTERN PICTURES
MONONGAH MINE HISTORY
MOUNT RUSHMORE THEN NOW
NIKOLA TESLA INTERVIEW
OBAMA HAWAII BIRTH PROOF
OBAMA IS NOT "PRESIDENT"
OLD ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY
OLD KARLOVA U. ARC LIGHT
OLD SANDY HOOK NEWS
PARKERSBURG WEST VIRGINIA
RAILROAD PHOTOS & HISTORY
SMOKING CIGARETTES
TEA PARTY PICTURES
TELESCOPES & ANCIENTS
THE BATTLE OF ARMAGEDDON
THE BENGHAZI REPORT
THE TWILIGHT ZONE
TRAM OR TROLLEY HISTORY
UNICORN IMAGES & HISTORY
U.S. ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION
WHO IS GOD?
WHO IS JESUS?
Contact Us
About Us
Member Login
Site Map

 

Lighthouse History in Text and Images Ancient and Modern

 

 A lighthouse carbon arc lamp built by Larry Brian Radka

 

Lighthouse beginning page previews and their links under the pictures below lead to more lighthouse history and images of these ancient and more modern lighthouses:

 

 

 

  

Lighthouse of Alexandria

 

Speaking of the lighthouse of Alexandria, "the poet Lucan, in his 'Pharsalia,' asserts that it [the Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria] indicated to Julius Caesar his ap­proach to Egypt on the seventh night after he sailed from Troy; and he makes use of the significant expression 'lampada,' which could hardly be applied, even poetically, to an open fire," wrote W. H. Davenport Adams in his 1871 edition of Lighthouses and Lightships. "Pliny expresses a fear lest its light, which, seen at a distance, had the appearance of flames, should, from its steadiness, be mistaken for a star; but as­suredly he would not have spoken in such terms of the wavering, irregular, and fitful light of an ordinary fire. We conclude, therefore, that its lighting apparatus was more complete than has generally been supposed." . . .

 

 

The First British Electric Lighthouses

 

No detailed history of any early modern use of electric carbon arc lamps in lighthouses seems to be readily available.  If diligently researched, the stories can be found in bits and pieces of electrical material in old newspapers, magazines, letters, official papers, reports, and a few books.  However, the average lighthouse enthusiast has no convenient means to acquire this rare information or put it together for a good understanding.  Therefore, we will try to do so, in a series of short articles on the various electric carbon arc lighthouses that once helped the nineteenth-century mariner to sail safely on his way. . .

 

  

Fire Island Lighthouse Electric Carbon Arc Lamp

 

Low-light-loss Fresnel lenses for lighthouses, much larger than the first one built by Augustin Jean Fresnel (1788-1827) and illustrated above, began focusing the brilliant electric carbon arc lamps blazing away in lighthouses along the British and French seacoasts in the 1860’s. [i] By the 1880’s, their popularity had extended to Italy, Australia,and even the New World. Chambers’s Journal made the following announcement of an installation in South America in 1884 as follows: . . .

 

 

Lighthouse Helgoland's Carbon Arc Lights

 

“A new form of electric flashlight has been installed in the lighthouse tower at Heligoland[i] by the Siemens-Schukertwerke, of Nuremberg, Germany,” stated the August 22, 1903 issue of Scientific American.  “There are three lower searchlights arranged 120 degrees apart, and another mounted upon the top, all operated automatically and driven by electric motors,” added the article titled “Modern Searchlights.”  “The carbons, which are fed by automatic mechanism are placed in a horizontal position, as is usual with most large searchlights.  The intensity of the light is 30 million candle power as a minimum, and the maximum current used is 100 amperes.  The light flashes occur every 5 seconds, and they remain in one position only .1 second.” . . .

 

 

The Lighthouse at Alexandria in Ancient Egypt

 

The lighthouse of Alexandria was one of the Seven wonders of the Ancient World. Atop the Pharos stood a great mirror, a reflective telescope, and electric searchlight, all in one.  You might ask:  Did the ancient Egyptians really have electric lights?  The answer is in the affirmative and the abundant evidence of its existence follows: . . .

 

 

The Navesink Lighthouse Beacon

 

The history of the Navesink Lighthouse carbon arc light is not perfectly clear.  At some time in 1896, a huge electric carbon arc light apparatus and gigantic fresnel lens left New York's Fire Island Lighthouse and eventually arrived on December 21st at the U. S. Lighthouse Depot at Tompkinsville on Staten Island for testing.  Apparently, the arrangement remained there for over a year, before being installed in the south tower of the Navesink Light on New Jersey's highlands in June of 1898.  At least, this is what the 1898 Report to Congress from the Lighthouse Board seems to indicate. " Although not authenticated, there is some opinion that the generator plant and the 2nd order bi-valve lens initially slated for Fire Island went to Navesink," wrote Editor Wayne C. Wheeler, in the summer 2000 edition of The Keeper's Log. . . .

 

 

A Short Excerpt from The Electric Mirror

on the Pharos Lighthouse and Other Ancient Lighting

 

This bizarre description of the good monk—whose light ecclesiastic duties probably denied him the ability to climb 1,800 feet to verify its height—should be accepted with caution.  We can, however, safely assume, after about 400 years, and a description as fabulous as this one, that the Pharos did, indeed, recover from any damage that it might have suffered from the great earthquake and tsunami of the year 365. . . .

 

 

 

Al Bakri's Rare Description

 of the Ancient Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria

 

 

Such a height for the Lighthouse of Alexandria is highly unlikely, and "the first wonder" was the Pyramids, built long before the Pharos Lighthouse that was probably the Seventh Wonder of the Ancient World instead.  Yet, the Lighthouse at Alexandria must have been an equal spectacle to see.  However, Al Bakri, a medieval Arab traveler, who carefully observed it, when it was still standing tall during his visit to Alexandria, was probably more accurate than Epiphanius in the determination of its height.  He reported:  "The Pharos today is composed of four stages.  The first, of a rectangular design, is remarkably built in rectangular cut stones, of which the joints are so well concealed that the whole seems to be formed of a single block of stone, remaining insensible to the ravages of time.  Its height is 320 cubits. . . .

 

 

 

A Piece of U. S. Lighthouse Service History

 

The following article on the United States Lighthouse Service appeared in the August 21, 1915 issue of Scientific American.  The details therein should interest both lighthouse enthusiasts and historians, and this rare piece of history runs as follows: . . .

 

 

Lighthouse Coins in Antiquity

 

Lighthouse coins display ancient electric lighting technology in The Electric Mirror on the Pharos Lighthouse and Other Ancient Lighting as well as on the lighthouse coin depicting the ancient lighthouse at Messina illustrated below: . .

 

 


 

 

BOOKS

Adam, Jean-Pierre & Blanc, Nicole, Les Sept Merveilles du Monde (The Seven Wonders of the World), Paris 1989

Adams, W. H. Davenport, Lighthouses and Lightships: A Descriptive and Historical Account of Their Mode of Construction and Organization, London 1871

Adler, Marcus N., The Itinerary of Benjamin Tudela, London 1907

Alberti, Leon Battista, The Ten Books of Architecture, The 1755 Leoni Edition, a reprint, N. Y. 1986

Barrett, Douglas, Sculptures from Amaravati in the British Museum, London 1954

Barton, George A., Archaeology and the Bible, Philadelphia 1916

Berlitz, Charles, Charles Berlitz’s World of the Odd and the Awesome, New York 1991

Blavatsky, H. P., Isis Unveiled: A Master-Key to the Mysteries of Ancient and Modern Science and Theology, 2 volumes. N. Y. 1877

Bombaugh, C. C., Gleanings from the Harvest-Fields of Literature, Science, and Art, Baltimore 1860; Gleanings for the Curious from the Harvest-Fields of Literature, (unabridged edition) Hartford, Connecticut 1875

Bouvier, Hannah M., Familiar Astronomy, Philadelphia 1857

Breasted, James Henry, A History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, N. Y. 1905 & 1951

Breccia, Ev., Alexandrea ad Ægyptum, A Guide to the Ancient and Modern Town, and to its Graeco Roman Museum, Bergamo, 1922

Brennan, Herbie, The Secret History of Ancient Egypt, New York 2001

Brodrick, M. & A, A, Morton, A Concise Dictionary of Egyptian Archaeology, London 1902

Brugsch-Bey, Heinrich, Egypt Under the Pharaohs, History Derived Entirely From the Monuments, London 1902

Brumbaugh, Robert S., Ancient Greek Gadgets and Machines, New York 1966

Budge, E. A. Wallis, An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary (a Dover reprint) in 2 Volumes, N.Y. 1978, Book of the Glory of Kings, London 1932, The Book of the Dead (a 1967 Dover reprint), London 1895, The Gods of the Egyptians, (a Dover reprint), 2 Volumes, New York 1969

Bunson, Margaret, The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, New York 1991

Burgess, Jas., The Buddhist Stupas of Amaravati and Jaggayyapeta in the Krishna District, Madras Presidency, surveyed in 1882, (a reprint), New Delhi 1996

Burritt, Elijah H., Geography of the Heavens and Class-book of Astronomy, New York 1872

Butler, Alfred J., The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty Years of the Roman Dominion (a revised reprint of the1902 edition), Oxford 1978

Carter, Howard and Mace, A.C., The Tomb of Tutankhamen, (reprint of the 1923 ed.), N.Y. 1963

Cary, Ferdinand E., The Standard Book of Knowledge, Chicago 1904

Chand, Devi, The Atharvaveda, New Delhi 2002

Childress, David Hatcher, Technology of the Gods, The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients, Kempton, IL 2000

Clarke, Arthur C., Mysterious World, New York 1980

Clayton, Peter A. & Price, Martin J., Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, London 1988

Conklin, Irving, Guideposts of the Sea, New York 1939

Cooper, W. R., Primary Batteries, Their Theory, Construction and Use, London 1920

Couat, Auguste, Alexandrian Poetry Under the First Three Ptolemies (324—222 B.C.), translated from the French in 1930 by Dr. James Loeb, London 1931

Corliss, William R., Ancient Man: A Handbook of Puzzling Artifacts, Glen Arm, Md. 1978

Croft, Terrell, Practical Electric Illumination and Signal Wiring, New York 1917

Crosthwaite, H., Ka, A Handbook of Mythology, Sacred Practices, Electrical Phenomena, and their Linguistic Connections in the Ancient Mediterranean World, Princeton 1992

Davis, John D., A Dictionary of the Bible, Philadelphia 1903

De Camp, L. Sprague, The Ancient Engineers, New York 1960

Derr, Louis, Editor-in-Chief, Cyclopaedia of Engineering, Vol. 5 of 5 Volumes, Chicago 1906

Dick, Thomas, The Complete Works of Thomas Dick, 11 vols. in two, St. Louis, Mo. 1857

Doan, Francis H., Electrical Measurements, Lamps and Heating (328) Part of the International Library of Technology, Scranton, Pennsylvania 1925

Donaldson, T. L., Architectura Numismatica, Ancient Architecture on Greek and Roman Coins, London 1859

Easton, M. G., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, (a reprint), London 1894

Ellis, William S., Glass, New York 1998

Empereur, Jean-Yves, Le Phare d’Alexandrie (The Lighthouse of Alexandria), La Merveille retrouvée (The Recovered Wonder) Evreux 1998, Alexandria, Jewel of Egypt, translated by Jane Brenton, London 2002

Fergusson, James, Tree & Serpent Worship or Illustrations of Mythology and Art in India from the Topes at Sanchi and Amravati, London 1868

Fisher, Clyde, The Marvels and Mysteries of Science, New York 1941

Forster, E. M., Alexandria, A History and a Guide, Alexandria 1922

Foss, Michael, The Search for Cleopatra, New York 1997

Fraser, P. M., Ptolemaic Alexandria, 3 volumes, New York 1972

Frith, H., The Triumphs of Engineering, Philadelphia, circa 1900

Georgiadès, Patrice, Les Secrets du Phare d’Alexandrie (The Secrets of the Lighthouse of Alexandria), Alexandria 1978

Goldberg, Benjamim, The Mirror and Man, Charlottesville 1985

Gregory, Richard, Mirrors in Mind, New York 1997

Guthrie, Kenneth S., The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library, Grand Rapids, MI 1987

Haas, Christopher, Alexandria in Late Antiquity, Baltimore 1997

Hague, D. & Christie, R., Lighthouses, Their Architecture, History and Archaeology, Wales 1975

Hammerton, J. A., Universal World History, vols. 1,2, 3.4 & 5, 1939, Wonders of the Past, 2 volumes, N. Y. 1923

Hammond, John Winthrop, Men and Volts, The Story of General Electric, N.Y. 1941

Harriss, Joseph, The Tallest Tower, Boston 1975

Hazlitt, William, The Classical Gazetteer, A Dictionary of Ancient Sites, London 1851

Higgins, Godfrey, The Celtic Druids, London 1829

Hilprecht, HV., Explorations in Bible Lands During the 19th Century, Philadelphia 1903

Holm, Adolph, History of Greece, Volume IV, Frederick Clarke, trans., London 1902

Hopkinson, John, Original Papers on Dynamo Machinery and Allied Subjects, New York 1893

Howell, John W. & Schroeder, Henry, History of the Incandescent Lamp, Schenectady, N. Y. 1927

Humphrey, J. W., Olson, J. P., Sherwood, A. N., Greek and Roman Technology, A Sourcebook, N.Y. 1998

James, Peter & Thorpe, Nick, Ancient Inventions, New York 1994

Jones, Bernard E., Electric Primary Batteries, A Practical Guide to Their Construction and Use, London 1911

Knudson, Albert C., The Religious Teachings of the Old Testament, New York 1918

König, Wilhelm, Neun Jahre Irak (Nine Years in Iraq) Brün, München, Wien, 1940

Kunz, George Frederick, The Curious Lore of Precious Stones, Philadelphia 1913

Larson, Linda, San Jose’s Monument to Progress: The Electric Light Tower, San Jose, California 1989

Lemprière, John, A Classical Dictionary, Fourth Edition, London 1842

Lockyer, J. Norman, The Dawn of Astronomy, a reprint of the 1894 edition

Luckiesh, M., Artificial Light, Its Influence Upon Civilization, New York 1920

Ludwig, Emil, The Nile, translated by Mary H. Lindsay, N. Y. 1937, The Mediterranean, Saga of a Sea, translated from the German by Barrows Mussey, London 1942,

Mariette-Bey, Auguste Édouard (“Bey” is a title of respect) Dendérah, Description Générale du Grand Temple de Cette Ville (Denderah, General Description of the Great Temple of this City), Paris 1875,

Mariette, Alphonse, The Monuments of Upper Egypt, his translation of the French of his brother Auguste’s Itinéraire de la Haute Égypte (Itinerary of Upper Egypt) into English, Boston 1890

Marshall, Percival, Small Accumulators, How Made and Used, London 1907

Mattingly, H., Roman Coins from the Earliest Times to the Fall of the Western Empire, London 1928

Maurice, Thomas, Indian Antiquities or Dissertations of Hindostan, 7 volumes, London 1812

McGovern, John, The Fireside University, Chicago 1909

Michalowski, Kzazimierz, Art of Ancient Egypt, New York (no date)

Milne, J. G., Catalogue of Alexandrian Coins, (reprint) N. Y. 1982

Myatt, Frederick, The March to Magdala, The Abyssinian War 1868, London 1970

Noorbergen, Rene, Secrets of the Lost Races, New Discoveries of Advanced Technology in Ancient Civilizations, N. Y. 1977

Nweeya, Samuel K. Persia, The Land of the Magi or The Home of the Wise Man, Philadelphia 1910

Perry, Walter Scott, Egypt, The Land of the Temple Builders, New York 1898

Petrie, W. M. F., Dendereh 1898, Seventeenth Memoir of The Egyptian Exploration Fund, London 1900, The Arts and Crafts of Ancient Egypt, London 1909

Poulter, J. D., An Early History of Electricity Supply, London 1986

Putnam, George R., Lighthouses and Lightships of the United States, N.Y. 1917; Sentinel of the Coasts, The Log of a Lighthouse Engineer, New York 1937

Rawlinson, George, The Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy or the Geography, History, and Antiquities of the Sassanian or New Persian Empire, Volumes 1 & 2, New York 1870, The Sixth Great Oriental Monarch, or the Geography, History, and Antiquities of Parthia, New York 1872

Ray, Acharya P. C., History of Chemistry in Ancient and Medieval India, Incorporating the History of Hindu Chemistry, a 2004 reprint of his early twentieth-century works

Renard, Léon, Les Phares (The Lighthouses), a reprint, Saint-Malo, France 1990

Remsburg, John E., The Bible, I. Authenticity, II. Credibility, III. Morality, New York 1901

Romer, John & Elizabeth, The Seven Wonders of the World, New York 1995

Ruhl, Arthur, etc., The Story of the Great War, 6 volumes, New York 1917

Salvadori, Mario, The Strength of Architecture, Why Buildings Stand Up, New York 1990

Sayce. A. H., The Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments, London 1894

Singer, Charles, etc. editors, A History of Technology, Vol. II, London 1956

Slingo, M. & Others, The Cyclopaedia of Electrical Engineering containing a History of the Discovery and Application of Electricity, Volume 1, Philadelphia 1892

Stevenson, David Alan, The World’s Lighthouses Before1820 (a reprint), New York 2002

Talbot, Frederick A., Lightships and Lighthouses, London 1913, All About Inventions and Discoveries, New York 1916

Temple, Robert, The Crystal Sun, Rediscovering a Lost Technology of the Ancient World, London 2000

Thorndike, Lynn, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, Vol. 1, New York 1923

Tomas, Andrew, We are not the First, London 1971

Van Horne, J. H., Modern Electro Plating, Chicago 1897

Walmsley, R. Mullineux, Electricity in the Service of Man, Volume I, London 1911

Watters, Thomas, On Yuan Chwang’s Travels in India, AD 629—645, a 1905 reprint, New Delhi 1996

Weigall, Arthur, A Guide to the Antiquities of Egypt, London 1910

Whitman, Walter G. & Peck, A. P., Whitman-Peck Physics, New York 1946

Wilkinson, Sir J. Gardner, A Popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians, reprint, 2 vols., N. Y. 1988

Woodcroft, Bennet, The Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria, London 1851


ARTICLES, PERIODICALS, PAMPHLETS, AND EXTRACTED REPRINTS

A Shocking Discovery, by W. F. M. Gray, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, September 1963. Vol. 110 No. 9

A Survey of the Chemistry of Assyria in the Seventh Century B.C., by Thompson, R. Campbell, a reprinted extract from Ambix, Vol. II, No. 1, June 1938

An Electric Battery 2,000 Years Ago, by Willy Ley, Astounding magazine, March 1939

Beacons of the Sea, Lighting the Coasts of the United States, by Putnam, George, in Vol. XXIV, No. 1 of The National Geographic Magazine, Washington, January 1913

Commercial Uses for Searchlights, General Electric Company, November 1919

Edinburgh Meeting Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, August 1887

Electricity Generation or Magic? The analysis of an Unusual Group of Finds from Mesopotamia by Emmerich Paszthory, The University of Pennsylvania’s MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Volume 6, 1989

Evidence of the Use of Primitive Batteries in Antiquity, Proceedings of the Symposium on Selected Topics in the History of Electrochemistry, George Dubpernell, Princeton, New Jersey, 1978

First Biennial Supplement to Johnson’s New Universal Cyclopaedia, a Scientific and Popular Treasure of Useful Knowledge by Alvin J. Johnson, New York 1879

Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, November 1854, August 1870, October 1870, and February 1875

Harper’s Weekly, January 14, 1882, February 25, 1888, May 18, 1895, New York

Helios on the Pharos, Goodchild, R. G., Antiquaries Journal reprint, Vol. XLI, 3 & 4, July-Oct. 1961

Historically Famous Lighthouses, U.S. Coast Guard, CG-232, Washington, D.C. 1972

La Réparation d’une Statuette Antique par l’électrolyse (The Reparation of an Ancient Statue by Electrolysis), by Dr. A. Gradenwitz, La Science et la Vie, Paris, April 1927

Les Phares Antiques (The Ancient Lighthouses), Bedon, Robert, Archeologia—No. 231, Janvier 1988

Les séismes à Alexandrie et la destruction du phare (The Earthquakes at Alexandria and the Destruction of the Lighthouse), Taher, Moustafa A., in Études alexandrines 3–1998 Alexandrie médiévale 1, Edited by Christian Décobert and Jean-Yves Empereur, published by the Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale

Lighthouse Illuminants (South Foreland Experiments), London 1890

Light-house Illumination, Reports on the U.S. Commissioners to the Paris Universal Exposition, 1867, Vol. III, Chap. XIII—Pages 415—432, Washington 1869

Military Electric Lighting, His Majesty’s Stationery Office, Volume II, 1915

Notes sur l’architecture musulmane d’Alexandrie (Notes on the Mussulman Architecture of Alexandria), Abouseif, Doris-Behrens, Études alexandrines 3, 1998

Operation, Adjustment, and Care of the General Electric 24-Inch High-Powered Searchlight Form “AA”, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 1919

Scientific American, July 21, 1888, January 29, 1898 and June 12, 1915 New York

Sur quelques représentations nouvelles du phare d’Alexandrie, (On Some New Representations of the Alexandrian Lighthouse), Picard, Charles, Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Paris. LXXVI-1952-1

The Ancient Egyptians used Electricity by Ivan T. Sanderson, Fate Magazine, September 1975

The Electric Light, by Professor John Tyndall The Popular Science Monthly, March 1879

The Elements of Khujut Rabu’a and Ctesiphon, by Willy Ley, Galaxy, December 1954

The Enigmatic ‘Battery of Baghdad’ by Gerhard Eggert, The Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 20, No. 3, May/June 1996

The Pharos of Alexandria, Summary of an Essay in Spanish by Don Miguel de Asin, Communicated by the Duke of Alba, From the Proceedings of the British Academy, London 1933

The Purpose of the Parthian Galvanic Cells: A First-Century A.D. Electric Battery used for Analgesia by Paul T. Keyser, The University of Chicago’s Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Volume 52, Number 2, April 1993

The Washington National Monument, by Charles E. Greene, Science, Vol. V, No. 107, February 20, 1885 N. Y.


ARAB WRITERS

Al-Bakri, Une Description Arabe Inédite du Phare d’Alexandrie (An Unpublished Arab Description of the Lighthouse of Alexdandria), É. Lévi Provençal, translator, Extract from Mémoires de l’Institut Francais, Cairo 1935

El-Edrisis (Idrisi), Description de l’Afrique et de l’Espagne, (Description of Africa and Spain) translated from the Arabic by Rheinhart P.A. Dozy and Michael J. de Goeje, Amsterdam 1969

Ibn Battuta,, Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354, H. A. R. Gibb, translator, a reprint, Delhi (1929) 1998

Ibn Jubayr, The Travels of Ibn Jubayr—R. J. C. Broadhurst—translator, London 1952

Maqrizi, A History of the Ayyūbid Sultans of Egypt, Translated from the Arabic of al-Maqrīzī with Introduction and Notes by R. J. C. Broadhurst—translator, Boston 1980


ANCIENT AUTHORS

Achilles Tatius, The Adventures of Leucippe and Clitophon, S. Gaselee, translator, Loeb, London 1917

Aeschylus, The Agamemnon of Aeschylus, translated by Gilbert Murray, New York 1920

Ammianus Marcellinus, translated by John C. Rolfe, Volume II, Loeb Classical Library, London 1936

Arculfus, The Pilgrimage of Arculfus in the Holy Land (About the Year A. D. 670), James R. MacPherson—translator, Vol. III, The Library of the Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society (We also used Vol. VI). London 1895 (1894)

Augustine, Saint, Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans, Henry Bettenson, translator, a reprint 1972

Caesar, Julius, Cæsar’s Commentaries on the Gallic and Civil War with the Supplementary Books attributed to Hirtius; including the Alexandrian, African, and Spanish Wars, W. A. McDevitte & W. S. Bohn—translator, N. Y. 1895

Diodorus Siculus, translated by Russel M. Geer, Volume IX, Loeb Classical Library, London 1947

Hero [Heron] of Alexandria, The works of Hero of Alexandria, translated by Bennet Woodcroft, London 1851

Josephus, The Works of Josephus, translated by William Whiston, First published in 1736

Julian, The Works of the Emperor Julian, Vol. 1, W. C. Wright, translator, Loeb Classical Library, London 1913

Lucan, The Civil War, translated by J. D. Duff, Loeb Classical Library, London 1928

Lucian, Lucian, Harmon, A. M.—translator, Volume IV, N.Y. 1925; Volume VI, K. Kilburn—translator, Loeb, London 1959

Marcellinus, Ammianus, Vol. II, J. C. Rolfe, translator, Loeb Class. Library, London 1986

Philo, The works of Philo, a common reprint of C. D. Yonge’s translation

Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, F. C. Conybeare, translator, 2 vols. Loeb Class. Libr., London 1917

Pliny, Natural History, Vols. I & IX, H. Rackham—translator, Loeb, London 1952 and Vol. X, D. E. Eichholz—translator, Loeb Classical Library, London 1962

Plutarch, Moralia, Vols. V and XII, F. C. Babbitt. H. Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold—translators, Loeb, London 1957

Procopius, Buildings, Vol. VII, H. B. Dewing—translator, Loeb Classical Library, London 1940

Strabo, The Geography of Strabo, Vol. III, H. C. Hamilton, & W. Falconer—trans, Bohn’s Classical Library, London 1906

Vitruvius, The Books on Architecture, Morris Hicky Morgan—translator, a Dover reprint, New York (1914) 1960

 

 


 

 










 

 

This page was last modified on Tuesday, December 06, 2016